As scientists, we deal daily with what God has revealed about Himself through the created universe. The only way to repair this damage is to show them that the Bible can easily be harmonized with an Old-Earth Creation position. So, we start out with two isotopes of uranium that are unstable and radioactive. He states that geologists are aware of this problem, and make allowances for it. Considerable excess 40Ar measured in ultramafic mantle xenoliths from Kerguelen Archipelago in the southern Indian Ocean likewise is regarded as the mantle source signature of hotspot volcanism.
This shows that rocks can adsorb a large amount of argon relative to the argon needed to give them old K-Ar ages, and also suggests that old K-Ar ages can be produced by external argon from the mantle. Brent 1991 The Age of the Earth. The amount of 40 Ar is also measured to assess how much of the total argon is atmospheric in origin. There are occasions when the argon-argon dating method does not give an age even if there is sufficient potassium in the sample and the rock was old enough to date. Ages determined by different methods would be in violent disagreement. A number of people requested references for my statements about young carbon 14 dates for coal and oil and fossils.
As of 1996, a new potassium-argon technique, single-crystal laser-fusion dating, gives a margin of error less than one percent. However, by ionizing the Rhenium removing all its electrons , scientists were able to reduce the half-life to only 33 years! Supporting this view is the presence of thin bands of lignite near the top of the section, with a 1-10 cm coal layer just underlying the capping basalt. The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. Samples were taken from the Shroud and sent to several laboratories along with other samples of fabrics of known ages. You see the taxman will come collect taxes from you, even when you are dead! Are we suggesting that evolutionists are conspiring to massage the data to get what they want? In these cases, the dates look confused, and do not lie along a line. As the rock starts to age, rubidium gets converted to strontium.
This sets the time periods they expect. Lead, however, is a volatile element, and so lead loss is commonly a problem. Some gave virtually zero ages, although the geologic evidence suggested that devitrification took place shortly after the formation of a deposit. One isotope, potassium-40, is radioactive and decays to two different daughter products, calcium-40 and argon-40, by two different decay methods. Conversion to stable 40 Ca occurs via electron emission in 89.
The remaining 11% convert to argon-40 by electron capture. However, even with such historical calibration, do not regard 14C dates as absolute because of frequent anomalies. The only isotopes present with shorter half-lives are those that have a source constantly replenishing them. In nearly all of the dating methods, except potassium-argon and the associated argon-argon method, there is always some amount of the daughter product already in the rock when it cools. Arndts and Overn and Kramer and others claim that Rb-Sr isochrons are the result of mixing, rather than of decay of 87Rb over long periods: It is clear that mixing of pre-existent materials will yield a linear array of isotopic ratios.
He talks somewhat philosophically about whether God deceives us with the Genesis account if the Earth is really old. Varve A sedimentary layer showing distinct texture or color for different seasons within a single year. In these slightly unusual cases, the date given by the normal potassium-argon method is too old. One of those is the assumption that the c-14 to c-12 ratio in the atmosphere has always been constant. Such assumptions are also necessary for the Pb-Pb method of dating. Therefore, the fossils of dinosaurs and such are shown to have lived more than 500,000 years ago. How can anyone know this information? Such changes can also take place at relatively low temperatures.
A speck of radioactive element such as Uranium-238, for example, will leave a sphere of discoloration of characteristically different radius for each element it produces in its decay chain to lead-206. Now it has been web-immortalized on a radiometric dating web page. The second fatal flaw clearly reveals that at least one of those assumptions must actually be wrong because radiometric dating fails to correctly date rocks of known ages. However, by now we have had over fifty years to measure and re-measure the half-lives for many of the dating techniques. This finding suggests a real disconnect when it comes to the reliability of at least two of the most commonly used radiometric dating techniques. For example, potassium-40 is radioactive. The last major glacial advance in America was long dated at about 25,000 years ago.
That means that P decreases while D increases. Some geochronologists believe that a possible cause of excess argon is that argon diffuses into mineral progressively with time. If there are three times as many daughter isotopes as parent, then two half-lives have passed, and so on. Aboriginal implements have been discovered in association with the australites. Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. The radioactivity of carbon-14 is very weak and even with all its dubious assumptions the method is not applicable to samples that supposedly go back 10,000 to 15,000 years.
So it was expected that most deposits such as coal, gas, etc. Whenever rock is melted to become magma or lava, the argon tends to escape. See for the derivation of the equation to which Dalrymple refers. Now, these geologists, publishing in the premiere geological journal in the world, are telling us that isochrons can look perfect on paper yet give meaningless ages, by orders of magnitude, if the initial conditions are not known, or if the rocks were open systems at some time in the past? Quoting again from Donald Stoner: By measuring the amount of potassium-40 in the sample and the amount of argon which is released when the sample is re-heated in a laboratory, it can be determined how long ago a particular volcanic eruption occurred. Animals then eat the plants, by which c-14 is integrated into their body.
Isotopes shown in dark green are found in rocks. The proportion of carbon-14 left when the remains of the organism are examined provides an indication of the time elapsed since its death. Working through a rock contains a half-life 704 million. Do not confuse with the highly radioactive isotope, strontium-90. They realize that all science is tentative because we do not have all the data, especially when dealing with the past.